Social Support D. Automatic Thought.
Based on operant conditioning what would be likely to happen if you are sitting in class listening to a lecture and you make eye contact and nod appreciatively after every key point? The professor should give more pop quizzes and homework B. The professor should avoid you C. The professor should tend to lecture on your side of the classroom more D.
The professor should go on a tangent. Our motivations are often driven by unconscious desires B.
Using public data to understand descriptive statistics This assignment covers several bases. By participating, you gain valuable first-hand knowledge of experimental psychology and contribute to the advancement of the field. Storytelling Storytelling requires communicating complex ideas, planning, perspective-taking, and self-presentation. Their flashcards should contain verbatim definitions for retention questions, accurate paraphrases for comprehension questions, and realistic examples for application questions. Predicting relationship quality and emotional reactions to stress from significant-other-concept clarity. No other make-up exams are allowed, except for verified medical illnesses and emergencies. They also must revise their hypotheses and study designs based on careful consideration of methodological concerns.
Cognitive Dissonance C. Irrational fears can be developed through classical conditioning D. Learning can happen through observation. The Cognitive Appraisal Theory states that humans give a primary appraisal and a secondary appraisal to all stressors. Regarding theories of emotion, which one would the Cognitive Appraisal Theory most correspond to?
James Lange Theory C. Cannon-Bard D. Top-Down Processing B. Self-Efficacy C. Availability Heuristics D. Learned Helplessness. Practice Perfection Always B. Chill, Drill, Build C. Semper ubi sub ubi ubique D.
Know where your towel is. Bandura, A. Transmission of aggression through imitation of aggressive models. Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology , 63, Barrett, L. The Experience of Emotion.
Annual Review of Psychology , 58 , — Stress, Appraisal, and Coping. New York: Springer.
Berthoud, H. The brain, appetite, and obesity. Annual Review of Psychology, 59 , Bushman, B. Catharsis, aggression, and persuasive influence: Self-fulfilling or self-defeating prophecies? Journal of Applied Psychology, 87, This indicates that not only classroom attendance contributes to this relationship, but also that advance quizzing in the classroom provides additional explanatory power. The previous analyses evaluated the impact of the interventions assuming that the advance quizzes were always used before learning.
However, it is possible that the students who did not attend class may have completed the quizzes after they studied. If so, then the quizzes would not be advance quizzes for those students. It is also possible that students accessed the quizzes during class time and used them as study guides during the lecture rather than using them at the beginning of the lecture as instructed. Again, if so, the quizzes would not be advance quizzes for those students.
In order to control for these possibilities further analyses were conducted. In these analyses, the focus was on those students who completed the advance quizzes during class, and specifically, during the first part of the lecture as instructed. The latter was possible due to the availability of the exact time stamp of the access to the advance quiz.
To allow for a proper measurement of the impact of advance quizzing at the beginning of the lecture, instances in which students also accessed the advance quiz after the lecture were excluded. As no time stamp information was available for the access to the podcast it was not possible to apply the same restrictions to those students who did not attend class.
With these restrictions, the mean number of uses of advance quizzing during the lecture was 3. To test whether advance quizzing during the lecture had an exclusive predictive value for the final exam, hierarchical regression analyses were conducted that included quizzing after the lecture and review in the first step and advance quizzing at the beginning of the lecture in the second step, separately for first-year students and second-year students.
Consistently, the results of these follow-up analyses showed that advance quizzing before learning contributed to performance in the final exam. These results demonstrate that advance quizzing had an additional and independent effect on memory exam performance. The purpose of the present study was to investigate whether retrieval practice before learning i. The results indicated that both variables enhanced final grades. Although the effects were small, they were consistent and replicated in two separate student groups i. Moreover, the effect was specific as it was not present in another cognitive psychology introduction course attended by the same first-year students.
These results are in line with other studies that showed beneficial effects of quizzing, retrieval practice, and spaced retrieval e. It is likely that these interventions have both direct and indirect effects on final exam performance. The specific processing of study materials can lead to greater familiarity and reduce anxiety in particular for complex materials.
Quizzing and retrieval can lead to more elaborate associations and retrieval cues, can enhance consolidation, and lead to more elaborate memory traces through reconsolidation.
Advance quizzing may specifically help in building up new memory representations. It may function as an advance organizer that guides attention through the lectures and thus enhances attentiveness. Importantly, due to the voluntary nature of the interventions in this study, self-initiated processes may be particularly boosted. Overall, the results of the current study indicate that even rather simple interventions based on the insights from basic research in laboratory cognitive psychology can have a significant impact on student learning in the classroom.
The results confirm theoretical considerations from laboratory studies on the effects of testing, pretesting, and the forward effect of testing e. In contrast to previous work, in the present study, the interventions were conceptualized on a voluntary basis, that is, students were not strictly required to participate in the interventions.
Thus, the quality of the submitted responses, in particular for the review intervention, may have varied substantially. Nevertheless, participating on a regular basis still improved overall course performance. The results also shed light on whether or not classroom attendance is necessary for successful performance.
They indicate that classroom presence is not a mandatory precondition for success in the final exam. These results are in line with other studies that have found no detrimental effects of new technologies compared to traditional face-to-face lectures e. They are also encouraging for the growing field of distance education where classroom attendance is not possible at all.
However, a limitation of the present study is the measurement of classroom attendance. It is important to note that advance quizzing in the classroom was used as a proxy for classroom attendance. Similarly, using advance quizzing after the class as a proxy for podcast use is also imprecise.
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In fact, the specific use of podcasts was not assessed at all. Nevertheless, the results indicate that advance quizzing during class and advance quizzing after class both contributed to predicting the final exam performance.
On a related note, it is possible that students who did not attend class may have completed the quizzes after they studied. Similarly, it is possible that students accessed the quizzes during class time and used them as study guides during the lecture rather than using them before learning. If so, the quizzes would not be advance quizzes for those students.
In order to control for these possibilities further analyses were conducted to test for the independent contribution of advance quizzing. In addition, instances in which students also accessed the advance quiz after the lecture were excluded. The results of these analyses showed that advance quizzing before learning contributed exclusively to performance in the final exam over and above the other two variables.
A caveat may also apply to the review intervention. As the specific review submissions were not controlled for quality or accuracy, they also represent a rather vague variable. It is very possible that the predictive value of review would have been even stronger if such a quality control had been implemented. This may be an avenue for future research. Despite these shortcomings, the presence of a consistent enhancing effect is striking.